InsiderLouisville columns

Gutenberg’s innovation can’t be overstated

The experts agree: The metal movable type printing press was one of the most significant inventions in human history.

The Atlantic (#1)

Livescience.com (#7)

Startup Guide (#15)

A&E’s Biography (#1)

Here’s a list that puts Gutenberg at #1. The innovations of nearly every single person that follows all relied upon Gutenberg’s press or its derivatives.

A masterpiece of obfuscation

The first paragraph of this TV news story from St. Louis is a masterpiece of Orwellian doublespeak and passive voice:

FERGUSON, MO (KTVI) – A shooting in Ferguson has tensions riding high between residents and police. Saturday afternoon, a police involved shooting occurred at the Canfield Green apartment complex in the 2900 block of Canfield. A teenager was shot and killed. An officer from the Ferguson Police Department was involved in the shooting.

Here’s how the first paragraph should have read instead:

A Ferguson police officer shot a teenager at the Canfield Green apartment complex in the 2900 block of Canfield on Saturday afternoon.

Why is that so difficult? Why did a simple one-sentence lead turn into four kludgy sentences?

The answer is simple: The KTVI reporters, like most mainstream media reporters, presumably have a close relationship with the police department and don’t want to experience pushback from their sources. As I wrote months ago:

This unwillingness to offend powerful sources was named years ago by Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky as “sourcing” … Obviously police departments are also on that list of official sources, which explains very well why police who make enormously embarrassing mistakes often vanish from headlines, leaving only an object (the “suspect”) and the action that mysteriously happened (“shot” or “killed”) without any apparent cause.

This kind of nonsense will only stop when these journalists receive pushback just as strong or stronger from communities affected by these so-called “police involved shootings.” Journalists ought to be in the business of telling the truth, not obfuscating it on behalf of powerful interests … as the New York Times did for years by refusing to use the word “torture” to describe, y’know, torture. Jay Rosen has some good thoughts on the NYT’s recent recanting of their policy.

WFPL Columns

Here is a complete list of all the WFPL columns I published from February 2013 to August 2014.

Book reviews

Here are links to all the reviews I’ve written for the Courier-Journal since 2012.

  • Review of Mario Livio, Brilliant Blunders: From Darwin to Einstein – Colossal Mistakes by Great Scientists That Changed Our Understanding of Life and the Universe. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013) in the Courier-Journal, 13 September 2013.
  • Review of Alex Stone, Fooling Houdini, Magicians, Mentalists, Math Geeks, and the Hidden Powers of the Mind. (New York: Harper, 2012) in the Courier-Journal, 26 July 2013.
  • Review of Elena Passarello, Let Me Clear My Throat: Essays. (Louisville: Sarabande Books, 2012) in the Courier-Journal, 19 April 2013.
  • Review of Chris Hedges and Joe Sacco, Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt. (New York: Nation Books, 2012) in the Courier-Journal, 8 March 2013.
  • Review of Al Smith, Kentucky Cured: Fifty Years in Kentucky Journalism. (Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2012) in the Courier-Journal, 4 January 2013.
  • Review of Hedrick Smith, Who Stole the American Dream? (New York: Random House, 2012), in the Courier-Journal, 18 January 2012.
  • Review of Gene Robinson, God Believes in Love: Straight Talk about Gay Marriage. (New York: Vintage, 2013) in the Courier-Journal, 19 October 2012.
  • Review of Tony Wagner, Creating Innovators: The Making of Young People Who Will Change the World. (New York: Scribner, 2012) in the Courier-Journal, 7 September 2012.
  • Review of Dale Carpenter, Flagrant Conduct: The Story of Lawrence v. Texas. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2012) in the Courier-Journal, 29 June 2012.

The most exciting news I’ve heard in months

Glenn Greenwald is creating a new journalism operation from the ground up thanks to funding from Pierre Omidyar, founder of eBay. Word is that all profits from the operation will be reinvested in the new organization. According to Omidyar, Greenwald had been working with Laura Poitras and Jeremy Scahill to develop a new online media organization anyway; Omidyar’s funding will enable them to go much further.

I expect a lot of breathtaking scoops and advocacy journalism from the new organization; I also expect a lot of condescending “yes well they’re not real journalists” statements from the establishment press.

When Jeff Bezos bought the Washington Post, I publicly wished for him to run the Post as if it were a nonprofit, prioritizing good journalism over profits, kind of like the Texas Tribune. Bezos has said that he’ll make no changes at the Post, which is a shame because their columnists are the worst. But occasionally the Post does publish some groundbreaking watchdog journalism, so maybe Bezos will be encouraging more of the same.

Even though it’s neither widely duplicable or sustainable, the trend of independent-minded rich guys buying into journalism might be good when it comes to the type of journalism Greenwald specializes in. But don’t expect any cutting-edge investigative reports on, for example, capitalism and full employment. Bezos and Omidyar may be seriously concerned about the health of modern journalism and the First Amendment, but they are both businessmen with profits to protect. I expect we’ll see some Democracy Now! type reporting on human rights and freedom alongside some Wall Street Journal type reporting on corporations and unions. But who knows? Greenwald, of all people, may be able to convince Omidyar to keep his hands completely off the journalism side of the operation.

Local media critics: a rare species

I’ve been really enjoying my gig with WFPL. During his interview with me, Jonathan Bastian asked me where I get my ideas for columns, and I said that it was all too easy: not only do friends and acquaintances regularly suggest ideas, but local news media (especially television) is an endless source of opportunities for media criticism. All I have to do is watch the local news for a few days or peruse their websites.

But I’ve noticed that I seem to be in a class of one. Despite my best Google-fu techniques, I can’t find any other examples of working local media critics in the United States. As Gabe Bullard wrote in the introduction to my first column, “in cities like Louisville, media criticism has gone the way of afternoon papers and Saturday mail.” The Courier-Journal fired its critic Tom Dorsey back in 2008. Perhaps I am the last of my kind?

A new gig at WFPL; conservatives & the CJ

I now have a freelance position as WFPL’s media critic. My first column about the lack of student perspectives in local media coverage has already been posted. Because I submit my writing for the WFPL staff to post instead of posting it myself, the gap between writing and posting is long (several days — an eternity in news time), which means I’m not able to quickly comment on Louisville news media events as they happen. For instance, the resignation of John David Dyche brought up a lot of issues about the definition of censorship, media dominance, and the obligations of local media.

From my perspective, it seems that many (but not all) conservative critics of the Courier-Journal are not upset that the newspaper is biased, but that it has a specifically liberal bias. These particular critics demand that the CJ publish more conservative columnists, even though it already carries George Will, Thomas Sowell, and Cal Thomas. They demand that the CJ stop publishing its own editorial opinions (something every newspaper around the United States does) and start publishing conservative editorial opinions. Nevermind that the CJ’s letters to the editor are routinely conservative; nevermind that the CJ routinely publishes conservative political cartoons. The idea is not just that bias must be eliminated, but that all liberal thought must be eliminated.

Having read Dyche’s rejected column, I’m not sure why the Courier refused to publish it. The public reasons given by Platt seem insufficient and inconsistent. That said, I’m also not sure why Dyche quit. He should have given his column to another local media outlet and then made a public stink about it until the CJ either apologized or severed their relationship. It hurt his case (and his cause) for Dyche to take his ball and go home.

Now imagine the same situation in reverse: suppose Thomas Frank wrote a scathing column critiquing the Wall Street Journal, the WSJ refused to publish it, and Thomas Frank stormed off in a huff. How would the conservative world react? “Too bad,” they would say. “It’s their newspaper and they have a right to control their content. If you don’t like it, start your own newspaper!”

And that’s exactly what I would say to John David Dyche and the conservatives of the Metro Louisville area: start your own newspaper. If you sincerely believe that the Courier-Journal is out of touch and out of tune with the mindset of area residents, then what an incredible opportunity this is for you to start your own print version of Fox News and attract all those angry former CJ subscribers. As Glenn Beck discovered, there’s gold in them thar hills!

A library on my wrist: technology, information, and education

Apparently the relatively affluent middle class in the United States and other industrial nations can look forward to wearable computers in the form of an Apple watch or Google glasses. Presumably these devices will be able to use Wi-Fi and/or cellphone networks to connect to the Internet, which means that it will require even less effort for us to look up any piece of information we want. We won’t even have to stick our hands in our pockets or purses to pull out that cellphone — the information superhighway will be on our wrists or in our eyes all of the time.

For educators, this means rethinking our approach to learning. In the past we insisted that children memorize things, and even now, when we encounter someone who can instantly recall an enormous variety of facts both significant and trivial, we tend to view that person as very smart, even though we’ve known for quite some time that memory is not the same as intelligence. Anyone who watched Rain Man knows the difference.

In an environment where all human knowledge is instantly accessible, what’s the point in forcing students to memorize facts? Wait, I know the answer to this one: so they can regurgitate those facts on easily-scored multiple-choice assessments. But set aside our national obsession with testing for a moment and ask yourself: if the purpose of public education is to prepare students for the future, then why should we bar the tools of the future from our classrooms? Instead of focusing on rote memorization of facts that can be easily looked up within seconds, why not focus on teaching students how to analyze, interpret, and evaluate those facts?

The previous paragraph serves as an example of my point. When writing that last sentence, I couldn’t remember the specific name of the particular classification of learning objectives that prioritized higher-order thinking skills such as analysis and interpretation. I went to Google and typed in “analyze interpret evaluate create remember,” and one of the top five results was an explanation of Bloom’s Taxonomy. This entire post is the result of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation: I read the New York Times story about the Apple watch, which got me thinking about technology and education, which in turn made me rethink educators’ backwards approach to personal technology in the classroom. Of course writing this post would have taken slightly less time if I could have just instantly remembered the name of that taxonomy, but not everybody has that type of (to borrow computer terminology) instantly searchable random access memory.

Pocket computers are already a reality, and yet it seems as if most public schools in the United States ban their usage, if not their possession. This seems exactly the opposite of what we ought to be doing. The common arguments against cellphones in classrooms is that students will use them to cheat, to send each other inappropriate messages, to play games when they should be working. But students can already do all of those things without cellphones. Students cheat, pass notes, and play games with paper and pencil. Why haven’t we banned those? Students read fiction for fun when they should be reading their math textbooks. Why haven’t we banned novels in public schools?

Obviously paper, pencils, and books have a proper educational purpose, and we teachers know that if we catch students using them inappropriately, we can provide proper consequences. We don’t ban those educational tools outright on the very real chance that someone might misuse them. But that is precisely our approach to personal computing technology in the classroom. We could be using SMS tools like PollEverywhere or ClassPager; we could challenge students to read about current events on their phones’ web browsers; we could have students collaborate with Skitch, examine Molecules, or prewrite with Popplet. Instead, we forbid the technology, mainly out of fear and ignorance.

Another potential objection to personal technology is its promotion upon dependence: those things don’t work without batteries, the Internet, and so forth. But that objection is somewhat disingenuous. The vast majority of us don’t teach our children how to preserve meat, trim wicks, or build fires from scratch any more, and no one says “But if the power goes out, what then?” Likewise, it’s no good to respond to the ubiquity of Internet access with “What if the power goes out?” or “What if the Internet is down?” because the Internet will be (or already is!) a commonplace feature of modern life, just like electricity, and outages will be (or currently are) brief and rare.

I look forward to teaching in a classroom where every student has the Internet at their fingertips (not to mention all of their textbooks in digital form) because I would much rather spend my time teaching students at the upper end of Bloom’s taxonomy. Instead of simply memorizing the formula for calculating velocity, the date of Gutenberg’s famous invention, or the correct conjugation of dormir, let’s make sure our students can use this information in meaningful ways that will enhance their daily lives in the future. And part of that daily life will be wearable computers.

Tools for critical consumers of media

I’ve discovered a couple of really useful tools for people who want to become more critical consumers of the news media—people who perhaps feel that they’re not really getting the full story, or that the news media isn’t quite doing the job they’re supposed to do, but aren’t quite sure how to articulate or confirm their suspicions.

The first is the SMELL test developed by John McManus, one of the people who developed the seven yardsticks of GradeTheNews.org. SMELL is an acronym:

S stands for Source. Who is providing the information?
M is for Motivation. Why are they telling me this?
E represents Evidence. What evidence is provided for generalizations?
L is for Logic. Do the facts logically compel the conclusions?
L is for Left out. What’s missing that might change our interpretation of the information?

The SMELL test is a simple, straightforward guide to vetting information of any kind, not just news, but it certainly applies to news reports. Professional journalists could benefit from applying the SMELL test to their own stories, such as the foreign policy reports that are filled to the brim with anonymous official sources making unsupported assertions.

The other tool is a guide published by the Foundation for Critical Thinking called “How to Detect Media Bias & Propaganda.”

mediabias  At 46 pages, this slim handbook is packed with useful information. Sections are devoted to topics like “Myths that obscure the logic of the news media,” “Forms of objectivity,” “Fostering sociocentric thinking,” and “Steps in becoming a critical consumer of the news.” The case studies are mainly from 2000-2004 and involve the runup to the Iraq war and the war itself. I would really like to see a second edition of this handbook devoted to more recent news stories, such as the revelation that the US media was fully aware of the US drone base in Saudi Arabia but chose not to report it — not for fear of revealing critical national security information, but to avoid causing political unrest in Saudi Arabia that might end up interfering with Obama’s foreign policy agenda.

I’ve been purchasing these guides for my Journalism 1 students for the past few years; I think it will go very well with McManus’ SMELL test and the Chomsky-Herman propaganda model (which we already cover in class). Even if my students don’t end up working as journalists, I like to think that they will be more critical consumers of news media and thus better citizens.

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